Walled Fortified Churches of Transylvania

Walled Church Fortress of Cincu  (click to enlarge)

During the Orthodox Easter weekend of 11-13 April 2015, I took a three day tour through Romania Transylvania to visit a selection of the walled fortified churches Transylvania is famous for. These churches are recognized as a UNESCO World Heritage site. We were extremely lucky with the weather as it was sunny throughout and with the traffic. As it was the Easter weekend there was hardly any cars on the road. On the other hand we learned that on Easter weekend a number of historic sites are simply closed. As it was early spring, it may have been a bit too early still to see the country side in a green glow with blossoming trees which definitely makes for more colorful photos. These Fortified Churches date from the 13th to 16th century and were built by the Saxon settlers of the region. The intent was to provide protection against invaders of many origins that would cross these lands, Mongols, Tatars, Hungarians, Ottoman Turks, Cossacks, and Moldavians.

In all it was a three day trip. Starting out from Bucharest on a Friday afternoon we drove up to Brasov to spend the night. On Saturday morning we visited Brasov and then around lunch time set off tovisit a number of sites on our way to Sighisoara. Late afternoon and the nextmorning we visited Sighisoara after which we drove to Sibiu visiting more churches along the way. When we arrived in Sibiu we had dinner in town and didnot spend extra time visiting the city as we had been there before. The last day we left Sibiu for Bucharest by traveling on the road “inside” Transylvania to visit a few more far off locations.

UNESCO World Heritage List

There are seven fortified churches on the heritage list and I managed to visit four.


Inside Prejmer, tha family rooms  (click to enlarge)The first Fortified Church I visited was Prejmer near Brasov. It’s only a 15 min drive from the city center and should definitely not be overlooked. I found it one of the better preserved and quite impressive sites and as it was the first one I visited I used it as a benchmark for all the others I would see later. Prejmer gives a very good idea what the idea behind the fortifications was. In times of external threat the villagers could seek refuge within the high protective walls and each family was assigned a room which was built in tothe fortification wall. In normal times the village families would use their rooms for storage.

Prejmer  (click to enlarge)The Teutonic Knights constructed the fortress Tartlau (Prejmer) in 1212–1213. The town near the castle begun development by 1225, and was the eastern-most settlement of the Transylvanian Saxons.


Biertan from afar  (click to enlarge)The Biertan fortified church was the see of the Lutheran Evangelical Bishop in Transylvania between 1572 and 1867. It’s one of the most important locations for the Transylvanian Saxons who organize yearly a reunion in the village. The Church was constructed and further developed between 1468 and the 16th century. The ensemble is an impressive sight that can be seen from afar.

THE lock (click to enlarge)The old sacristy of the church where the sacred vessels and vestments were kept has an impressive lock that allows the door to look in to 19 different points. It’s so remarkable that t won first prize at the Pair World Expo of 1900.


Viscri  (click to enlarge)From Wikipedia, we learn that the origins of the fortified church date from 1100 when the Székelys built a small church with a single hall and semicircular apse. Around 1185 the church was taken over by Saxon colonists, and the Székelys were forced to settle further north. In the 14th century the eastern part of the church was rebuilt and in 1525, the first fortifications with towers were added. In the 18th century the church was surrounded by a second defense wall. After 1743 a covered corridor for the storage of corn was built. A century later, two chambers in the defense corridor of the bastion were turned into school rooms.

The altar  (click to enlarge)The classic 19th-century altar has as centerpiece "the Blessing of the Children" by the painter J. Paukratz from Rupea.

Valea Viilor

Valea Viilor  (click to enlarge)When we visited the site was closed. It appears a rather small ensemble.

Other Sites


Harman  (click to enlarge)Situated between Brasov and Prejmer, Harman church is well worth the stopover. It was built in Roman style in the early 1500’s with 5m thick and 1m high walls. The Roman style church was built by Cistercian monks between 1280 and 1290 and later rebuilt in gothic style. The site used to be surrounded by a moat.


Rupea Fort  (click to enlarge)The fort at Rupea is an impressive sight from afar. It sits high on a butt on historic crossroads between Transylvania, Walachia and Moldova. It is first referred to in 1324 as “Kuholm Castrum”.A lot of the fort has recently been “rebuilt” which lends it more of a game park aspect than a feel of a historic site. The views over the towns and the valley are impressive.


Defunct Transylvanian railroad  (click to enlarge)When driving from Sibiu to Hosman and Agnita, one can notice abandoned railroad tracks in parallel to the road. Surprisingly it was in use till 2004 as a narrow-gauge track and was part of a track that lead all the way to Sighisoara but the section from Agnita to Sighisoara was closed in 1963. It would be a great touristic asset to be able to discover the region via a narrow-gauge train that winds itself though all the historic sites and beautiful landscapes of Transylvania.

Farm houses

Farm Houses  (click to enlarge)Not only the fortified churches are an attraction in the region, yet, the many villages have managed to retain a lot of their original character and many have streets lined with well kept farm houses each highlighted in a different bright color.



Piata Sfantului  (click to enlarge)Brasov is an easy daytrip away from Bucharest and is well worth a visit due to its many historic sites. It was originally known as Kronstadt in German. The old town retains much of its original medieval charm and the centerpiece to this is the town square, Piata Sfatului, with its Old Town Hall right in the middle, dating back to the 13th century. It was where the town councilors would meet and it was topped with a watchtower.

Brasov Black Church  (click to enlarge)The Black Church, named after the damage caused by the great fire of 1689, is a must to visit. It is the largest gothic church in Romania with the largest church bell in the country, weighing in at seven ton. It has a huge organ, among the largest in Eastern Europe, with 4000 pipes dating to 1839. Remarkable inside is also the fact that it is decorated with Anatolian carpets that were offered by tradesman and it has richly decorated pews.

Catherine gate to Kronstadt  (click to enlarge)As a mediaeval city, Brasov was surrounded by defense fortifications built by the Saxons. The walls were 12m high, 2m thick and the total length was about 3km. It was strengthened with 7 bastions, several of which survived till today and it had a number of gates. One of these is the fairytale like Catherine’s Gate, the only one surviving and it used to be the main entrance in to Kronstadt.


Hill country  (click to enlarge)Sighisoara is another UNESCO World Heritage site not to be missed. Its German name was Schassburg. Its historic center is the 12th century citadel. It even boasts a house near the clock tower where Vlad Tepes lived from 1431 to 1435.

Hill country  (click to enlarge)It has cobble stoned streets lined with colorful “burgher” houses.

Last Updated: 14-08-2015

Copyright © 2014 Hans Dewaele – All rights reserved


Wonderful Crete

Charging bull wall restoration (click to enlarge)Mid-February I traveled to Crete on business. As it was my first ever visit to the island I decided to go earlier to allow me to spend part of the weekend sight-seeing. So I traveled from Bucharest to Heraklion on a Saturday. The first surprise was the weather. I was under the naïve expectation that the weather would be mild as Crete is located in the Mediterranean halfway between Greece and the North African coast. The weather was actually rather chilly and windy and later in the week it turned into a strong storm with ferries staying in harbor and flights being canceled and even the Venetian port of Hania being flooded. The view from Heraklion to the south was of snowcapped mountains, not exactly something I expected in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea. Yet, I wasn’t entirely unlucky with the weather. On Sunday, the morning started chilly but the sun pierced through the cloud cover and by mid-morning it had turned into a bright sunny, albeit not warm, day which remained like that till later afternoon. I could not have asked for more to complete the purpose of my coming early to Crete: the visit of the historic site of the Palace of Knossos. Yet, it turned out I was very lucky with the timing of my visit. A beautiful winter Sunday morning. I was the first visitor at 8 am. As a result of the earliness and the time of the year I had the grounds to myself. I took a guided tour and after the tour took much more time to wander around again. In all, I spent three hours on the site, virtually by myself as I counted only 6 more visitors in the entire time!

The Palace of Knossos is a remarkable site showcasing the degree of sophistication that existed 4’000 years ago. This sophistication is exemplified in many aspects, from architecture, to engineering, over craftsmanship in jewelry to the arts. The Minoans may not have had the “technology” and sophisticated equipment and tools at their disposal as we have today, yet they were able to equal us in thinking and creativity and applying it.

Sir Artur Evans (click to enlarge)We can only guess what brought the demise of this fantastic and impressive civilization in the 14th century BC. We have to thank a local businessman, Minos Kalokairinos, and his passion for trying to uncover the Palace of Knossos as it was known from many old tales. He started excavating in 1877 but was stopped by the occupying Ottomans. Later, however, the Englishman Sir Arthur Evans, was able to purchase the land and obtain a permit from the Ottomans to excavate. He continued to excavate till the 1930’s. The most controversial part however is the bold “restorations” he embarked on the 1920’s. Today. and even then. these were frowned upon, yet they give an ordinary visitor a better idea of the magnificence of the works the Minoans were capable of. Sadly, as a result the site does not qualify as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, even though it should since the restoration does not take away the value of its heritage to our civilization and history. Currently it is only on the “tentative list” along with the other Minoan palaces on Crete.

Canalization (click to enlarge)The engineering qualities displayed are tremendous. The Minoans were able to build 4 floors high, 4’000 years ago! They also brought drinking water in clay pipes from the mountains kilometers away. And even more remarkable, they had canalization in the palace with clean water being separated from sewage. This very much reminds me of the Indus civilization, more than 4’000kms away, which in a similar time period was building cities with unbaked bricks and had canalizations too to separate sewage from drinking water as evidenced in the archeological site of Moenjodaro, in current Pakistan. Quite remarkable when you come to think that in the Palace of Versailles, built in the 17th century for the French Sun King Louis XIV, there were no toilets!

Bull jumping game fresco (click to enlarge)The decorations inside the palace rooms were exquisite by any standard. Plenty of murals many of which have been pieced together again and which can be seen on-site as part of the restoration work Evans undertook while the originals are on display at the beautifully refurbished Archeological Museum in Heraklion. One of the better known frescos is the one with the scene from the bull leaping game showcasing the successive phases of the game in which a contestant is leaping over the bull by grabbing its horns to leap over the back of the bull and land on his feet facing the animal’s back.

Golden bees pendant (click to enlarge)One should not skip a visit to the Archeological Museum of Crete in Heraklion. The museum has very recently re-opened after an extensive refurbishment project. The visit complements the tour of the Knossos Palace perfectly well. It contains a very large collection of items that were unearthed during the excavations and show all elements that were part of daily life in the Minoan civilization.  There are some very refined pieces of gold jewelry on display showing the high level of craftsmanship that was mastered in these days without any of the sophisticated tools available to artisans today. This so well brought to live in the small, a few centimeters across only, pendant with bees dating from 1’700 BC.

In Hania's old town (click to enlarge)Hania on the North West coast of Crete is from a totally different era. Hania’s more recent heritage is Venetian and Ottoman. The origin of the name comes from its Venetian name “La Canea”.  The intricate mesh of narrow winding streets of the Venetian old town surrounding the old harbor showcase the old Venetian and Ottoman architecture very well. Unfortunately, when I visited it was winter, hence no tourist season, and therefore most places were boarded up. With the storm raging it also turned the place rather grim.

Storm in Hania's old Ventian harbor (click to enlarge)Not only was it winter, Crete was also being hit by a severe winter storm. This storm translated into the quays if the old harbor being flooded and the water going into the little streets that lead from the old town into the harbor area. It makes for dramatic scenery, but sadly, also quite a bit of devastation. Clearly a place I would like to come back to under more auspicious weather conditions.
Last Updated: 28-03-2015

Copyright © 2015 Hans Dewaele – All rights reserved



Thessaloniki – Greece

Entrance to the tomb of Philip of Macedonia (click to enlarge)

Mid-January I spent a two days on a business trip to Thessaloniki. As I arrived on a Sunday afternoon, I took the opportunity to go for a short walk to see some of the sights in town. Unfortunately the weather was not very pleasant. Cloud cover and a light drizzle. And all the historic sites were closed, so they could only be viewed from the outside. Nevertheless it was clear that Thessaloniki is a beautiful city with a long history and I should make an effort to return for a proper visit of all the historic sights and museums.

Arch of Roman Emperor Galerius (click to enlarge)Thessaloniki is a city dotted with landmarks as reminders of its long history. In the early 4th century AD Roman Emperor Galerius made the city to be the imperial capital. This lasted until the empire’s division in AD 395. Galerius left a number of monuments. There is the large ruins of the Palace of Galerius, but also the impressive Arch of Galerius which was erected in AD 303 to celebrate a victory over the Persians. It features beautiful sculptures depicting the battle. Then there is also the Rotunda of Galerius which was intended to become his mausoleum but instead was later turned into a Byzantine church and in to a mosque under the Ottoman rule.

Aga Sofia Church (click to enlarge)Thessaloniki is dotted with Byzantine churches. One of the most important ones is the Aga Sofia which dates from the 8th Century. Its heritage of churches also ensured it got listed on the UNESCO World Heritage list.

Beautiful architecture (click to enlarge)The center of the city has plenty of remnants of French style architecture dating back to the early 20th century when the city was reconstructed after the 1917 fire that swept through.

Ossuary of King Philip (click to enlarge)About an hour’s drive from Thessaloniki one should visit the Royal Thombs of King Philip of Macedonia in Vergina. It’s listed as a UNESCO World Heritage site. The King was assassinated during the wedding of his daughter Cleopatra. The huge burial mound with the tombs inside has been turned into an exquisite museum showing the 4 tombs inside along with items that were found inside the tombs, each beautifully displayed in a show cases that let you see the items really up close, almost to the touch. The surrounding area also shows the ruins of the palace complex and the old capital. Unfortunately I only had time to visit the tombs.

Last Updated: 04-02-2015

Copyright © 2015 Hans Dewaele – All rights reserved